Question # 537: Is this permissible to perform multiple umrah in one trip/travel?
bismi-llahi r-raḥmani r-raḥīm,
Assalamu ‘laikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
All praise and thanks are due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
First of all, we implore Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to help us serve His cause and render our work for His sake.
Shorter Answer: The repetition of ‘Umrah in one journey is not from the Sunnah of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), his Companions (رضي الله عنهم) or the pious predecessors. Being busy in remembrance of Allah, performing prayers, and tawaf is better, as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and his Companions (رضي الله عنهم) did, than making a new Umrah. Nevertheless, the majority of scholars have allowed one who performs ‘Umrah to perform another one during the same journey, especially if he is from outside Makkah and it is a long journey and difficult to return once more. The permissibility of performing two ‘Umrahs comes from the hadith of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), where he commanded ‘Abdur-Rahman, the brother of ‘Aa’ishah (رضي الله عنها), to accompany her to At-Tan‘eem in order to assume a new state of ihram (for performing ‘Umrah). However, the condition is that he must end his first ‘Umrah by shaving his head or shortening his hair, after which he must go to the nearest meeqat (place for assuming ihram), like At-Tan‘eem or Al-Ji‘raanah and don Ihram for another ‘Umrah with a new intention. If a person assumed the state of ihram in Makkah to perform ‘Umrah and did not go back to the meeqat, then his ‘Umrah is valid, but he does bear the sin for that, and it is incumbent upon him to offer a sacrificial animal.
Long Answer: Repetition of ‘Umrah for the Muslim in one journey, either for himself or on behalf of someone else, is not from the Sunnah of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) or his Companions (رضي الله عنهم) or was it from the guidance of the pious predecessors. The basic principle is that for each ‘Umrah, there is a separate journey [as the pious predecessors used to make a separate journey for every Umrah. Thus, being busy in remembrance of Allah, performing prayers, and tawaf is better as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and his companions did than making a new Umrah.]
Ibn al-Qayyim said in Zaad al Ma’ad: “None of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم)’s ‘Umrahs were performed by leaving Makkah as many people do today. Rather, all his ‘Umrahs were done while entering Makkah. He remained in Makkah for thirteen years after the revelation was first sent down, and it has not been reported that he did ‘Umrah by leaving Makkah during that time.
The ‘Umrah that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) performed and prescribed was the ‘Umrah for one entering Makkah, not the ‘Umrah of one who is already in Makkah, then leaves the “sanctuary” to return for an ‘Umrah. In his time, only A’ishah (رضي الله عنها) did this, and it was due to a specific situation; that is, she had the intention of performing ‘Umrah, but her menses occurred. The Messenger of Allah ordered her to do the Hajj with ‘Umrah, and thus she performed Hajj Qiran (a type of Hajj where Hajj and ‘Umrah are done with one ihram). He informed her that the tawaf (circumambulation) around the House and walking between Safa and Marwah counted for both the Hajj and ‘Umrah. However, she felt somewhat upset that her friends (other women) would return having performed Hajj and ‘Umrah separately, as they performed Hajj Tamattu’ and did not menstruate during that time; whereas A’ishah (رضي الله عنها) performed Hajj Qiran and her ‘Umrah was included within her Hajj. The Messenger of Allah then ordered her brother to take her out to Tan’eem and return to Makkah in order to perform her ‘Umrah and to make her feel better. However, he did not perform ‘Umrah from at-Tan’eem during that Hajj, nor did anyone else who was with him.”
Nevertheless, the majority of scholars have allowed one who performs ‘Umrah to perform another one during the same journey, especially if he is from outside Makkah and it is a long journey and difficult to return once more. In that case, he has to leave to the nearest place outside the “sanctuary” in order to get into the ihram for the other ‘Umrah.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim reported from ‘Aishah (رضي الله عنها) that she said: “O Messenger of Allah, you did ‘Umrah, and I did not. He said: O Abdur-Rahman, take your sister and make her perform the ‘Umrah from at-Tan’eem. So, he took her on his camel, and she performed the ‘Umrah.” In another narration found in Bukhari and Muslim, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said to Abdur-Rahman: “Leave the sanctuary with your sister and let her intend ‘Umrah.”
Al-Imam an-Nawawi said in his commentary on Sahih Muslim: “’Leave the sanctuary with your sister and let her intend ‘Umrah’ in this is evidence for what the scholars said: That one who is in Makkah and wants to perform ‘Umrah, then his meeqat (boundary) for it is the closest area outside the sanctuary, and it is not allowed for him to don the ihram within the sanctuary (haram). The scholars said: It is incumbent to leave the sanctuary so as to combine between the area outside the sanctuary and the sanctuary as the pilgrim does, for he stands in ‘Arafah (which is outside the sanctuary), then enters Makkah for the tawaf (circumambulation) and other acts.
Malik said: It will not count until he leaves the sanctuary. Al-Qadhi ‘Iyadh and Malik said: He must don the ihram from at-Tan’eem specifically. They said: It is the meeqat (boundary) for those performing ‘Umrah from Makkah. But this is an isolated and rejected opinion for the majority of scholars opine that all areas outside the sanctuary (in any direction) are equal; at-Tan’eem is not specified.”
Al-Imam Malik said in al-Muwatta: “As for ‘Umrah from at-Tan’eem, then whoever wants to leave the sanctuary and don the ihram, then this is sufficient for him In sha Allah, but the virtue is to intend (‘Umrah) from the boundary set by the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) or from that which is further than at-Tan’eem.”
Al-Imam ash-Shafi’ee said in al-Umm: “The boundary for ‘Umrah for one who is in Makkah is the area outside the sanctuary, and it is better to don the ihram from Ji’irranah or at-Tan’eem.”
Ibn Qudama said in al-Mughni: “If the people of Makkah want to do ‘Umrah, then it must be from outside the sanctuary. But if they want to do Hajj, then it is from Makkah. The people of Makkah or those in Makkah are equal in that, whether they are travelers or residents, because whoever crosses a boundary, that is a boundary for him, and whoever is in Makkah, then it is his meeqat for Hajj. If he wants to do ‘Umrah, it must be from outside the sanctuary, and we know of no difference of opinion in that. That is why the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) ordered ‘Abdur-Rahman to make ‘Aishah do the ‘Umrah from at-Tan’eem.”
Sh. ‘Abdul ‘Aziz ibn Baz responded [to a similar question]: “There is no harm …if he came for Hajj or ‘Umrah and performed them on his own behalf or on behalf of someone else and then wanted to perform another ‘Umrah for himself or on behalf of someone else. There is no problem in that, but one must go outside the sanctuary for it; he must go outside the sanctuary of Makkah, at-Tan’eem or Ji’irranah or somewhere else and don the ihram from there, then enter (Makkah) and do the tawaf, walk between as-Safa and al-Marwah and shorten the hair. This is allowed whether it be for himself, a deceased relative or friend, or one who is incapable, such as the elderly… there is no harm in that. ’Aishah (رضي الله عنها) did this upon the instruction of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), as she did ‘Umrah with the Prophet, then on the night of the 13th, she took permission to do ‘Umrah, and he permitted her, ordering ‘Abdur-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr (her brother) to take her to at-Tan’eem and then perform ‘Umrah. This is considered a second ‘Umrah from within Makkah.”
Shaykh Ibn Baaz also said: “There is no harm in this [performing more than one ‘Umrah during the months of Hajj]. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “Performing two ‘Umrahs is an expiation for the sins committed in the interval between them, and the accepted Hajj commands no reward but Paradise.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) If the pilgrim performed three or four ‘Umrahs, there would be no harm on him, since ‘Aa’ishah (رضي الله عنها) performed two ‘Umrahs in less than twenty days at the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) during the Farewell Hajj.”
[Therefore], if one performs more than one Umrah, his Umrah is correct. However, each ‘Umrah requires an individual [intention for] Ihram… [therefore, one] cannot perform more than one ‘Umrah while in the same Ihram. [Implying that it is not necessary to change the clothes of ihram used but with renewed intention] There is no scholar – to the best of our knowledge – who has allowed this.
In order for the ‘Umrah to be complete, a pilgrim must end his Ihram by shaving his head or shortening his hair. Only when he does that would he have done ‘Umrah and no longer be in Ihram. After that, he can perform another ‘Umrah with the same garb, [but a new intention] for Ihram.
However, if he neither shaves nor shortens his hair, his first ‘Umrah would not be complete. Accordingly, even if he made [the intention for] Ihram for another ‘Umrah, this state would be invalid, and his Tawaaf would be just a voluntary act of worship, not part of the ‘Umrah. Also, his Sa’i would not be [accepted as] one of its rites because it is a pillar of ‘Umrah; and it is not possible for the pilgrim to perform two same pillars for two different rituals with one Ihram. Every ritual has its own ruling. Nevertheless, if he ended his Ihram of the first ‘Umrah, he could go to the nearest meeqat (place for assuming ihram), like At-Tan‘eem or Al-Ji‘raanah, and don Ihram for another ‘Umrah… Also, if it was permissible to assume the state of ihram in Al-Masjid Al-Haram without having to leave for the nearest meeqat, then the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) would not have ordered her to go to the meeqat.
If a person assumed the state of ihram in Makkah in order to perform ‘Umrah and did not go back to the meeqat, then his ‘Umrah is valid, but he does bear the sin for that, and it is incumbent upon him to offer a sacrificial animal for failing to go out to the meeqat in order to assume a new state of ihram.
These are the details of the Shafi’i school of thought, and similar to this has been said by the majority of scholars: That it is necessary to leave to the closest area outside the sanctuary to don the ihram for ‘Umrah, and if he were to do so from within the sanctuary and not leave, a penalty (sacrifice) would be binding. ‘Ata said: There is nothing on him (i.e., no penalty).
(The above reply is based on various answers on similar topics provided by:
- Islamqa.info; and
- Islamweb.net, a website belonging to the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs in the State of Qatar)
Allahu A’lam (Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows best) and all Perfections belong to Allah, and all mistakes belong to me alone. May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) forgive me, Ameen.