Question # 173: Can I make jamaah for Qada (missed) prayers?
Bismi-llahi r-raḥmani r-raḥīm,
Assalamu ‘laikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
All praise and thanks are due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
First of all, we implore Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to help us serve His cause and render our work for His sake.
Shorter Answer: It is mustahabb to make up missed prayers in congregation based on the authentic ahadith and opinion of scholars of Ahlu Sunnah wal-Jama’ah.
Long Answer: It is prescribed to pray in congregation when making up missed prayers, because of the report narrated by al-Bukhari, Muslim and al-Nasa’i from Abu Qatadah who said: We were with the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) (on a journey) and some of the people said: Why don’t you let us stop to rest (at the end of the night) O Messenger of Allah? He said: “I am afraid that you will sleep and miss the prayer.” Bilal said: I will keep watch for you. So they lay down and went to sleep, and Bilal leaned back against his mount. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) woke up and saw that the edge of the sun’s disk had risen. He said: O Bilal, what about what you said? He said: I have never slept like that. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “Allah took your souls when He willed and He returned them when He willed. Get up, O Bilal, and call the people to prayer.” So Bilal got up and called the people to prayer, and they did wudu’, i.e., when the sun had gotten high, then he stood up and led them in prayer.
Ibn Qudamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni: “It is mustahabb to make up missed prayers in congregation. On the day of al-Khandaq, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) missed four prayers, and he made them up in congregation. And in the hadith of Abu Qatadah and elsewhere it says that when the Prophet made up for Fajr prayer on the day of al-Khandaq, he and his companions, he led them in offering the prayer in congregation.”
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “From the hadith of Abu Qataadah it may also be understood that it is prescribed to offer made-up prayers in congregation if there is a group, because making up is to be done as one would have performed the prayer. If they would have offered the prayer in congregation if they had prayed on time, then when they make it up they should offer it in congregation. This is also mentioned in the Sunnah in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah, when the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) told Bilal to give the call to prayer, then he prayed two (Sunnah) rak’ahs of Fajr, then he led them in praying Fajr prayer in congregation.” (al-Sharh al-Mumti’)
(The above reply is based on answer provided by Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid on the topic)
Allahu A’lam (Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows best) and all Perfections belong to Allah, and all mistakes belong to me alone. May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) forgive me, Ameen.