Question # 156: Is it allowed to perform nafli umrah / Hajj on behalf of deceased parents / family members? Is there any authentic Hadith on this matter?
Bismi-llahi r-raḥmani r-raḥīm,
Assalamu ‘laikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
All praise and thanks are due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
First of all, we implore Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to help us serve His cause and render our work for His sake.
Shorter Answer: It is permissible for the Muslim who has performed the obligatory Hajj/ Umrah on his own behalf to perform Hajj/ Umrah on behalf of someone deceased because of the sahih ahadith in this regard. Moreover, it is recommended for a Muslim to perform Hajj/Umrah on behalf of his deceased parents, as this is among the deeds that may benefit the latter.
Long Answer: [Among the deeds that may benefit the deceased are Hajj and ‘Umrah performed on their behalf.] AI-Bukhari related on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه) that: “A woman said to the Prophet, ‘O Messenger of Allah! My mother had vowed to perform Hajj but she died before performing it. May I perform Hajj on her behalf?’ He replied, ‘Yes, perform Hajj on her behalf. Had there been a debt on your mother; would you have paid it or not? (If yes) so pay Allah’s debt as He has more right to fulfill His debt (i.e. the obligation of Hajj).’”
The aforesaid hadith proves that anyone who dies before performing the obligation of Hajj, then his son or guardian should do it on his behalf…
According to another hadith, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) enjoined a woman whose sister vowed to perform Hajj and died before fulfilling it, to perform Hajj on her behalf’. Similarly, it was related in the Sunan of Ad-Daraqutni that he (صلى الله عليه و سلم) enjoined a man whose father died before performing the obligation of Hajj, to perform it on behalf of his father’…
It is recommended for a Muslim to perform Hajj on behalf of his parents whether they are dead or alive but lacking the ability to do it; a Muslim is to perform it on his mother’s behalf first, as the mother is worthier of one’s dutifulness.
The person who performs Hajj on behalf of another must have performed Hajj on his own behalf first, according to the following hadith reported by Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه): “The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) heard a man saying talbiyah in this way, ‘Here I am at Your service O Allah, on behalf of Shubrumah.’ He (the Prophet) asked, ‘Have you performed Hajj on your own behalf?’ The man said, ‘No.’ The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, ‘Perform Hajj on your own behalf first, then perform it on behalf of Shubrumah.’” (Related through a good chain of transmitters and is deemed sahih (authentic) by Al-Bayhaqi)
(The above excerpt is from the book ‘AI-Mulakhkhas AI-Fiqhi’ by Dr. Salih AI-Fawzan)
Allahu A’lam (Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows best) and all Perfections belong to Allah, and all mistakes belong to me alone. May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) forgive me, Ameen.