Question # 11: What is correct ruling in combining Salat Jumu’ah & ‘Asr when traveling as understand reliably Iman Shafi has allowed it?
bismi-llahi r-raḥmani r-raḥīm,
Assalamu ‘laikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
All praise and thanks are due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
First of all, we implore Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to help us serve His cause and render our work for His sake.
The reference to the ruling mentioned in your question appears in ‘Reliance of the Traveller’, A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law ‘Umdat al-Salik by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (d. 769/1368). This book is considered a classical manual of fiqh for the Shafi’i school of Islamic Jurisprudence. The exact wordings appear as follows:
“f15.9 It is permissible to join the noon prayer (Dhuhr) and midafternoon prayer (‘asr) during the time of either of them (N: or the Friday prayer (jumu’a) and midafternoon prayer in the time of the Friday prayer), and permissible to similarly join the sunset prayer (maghrib) and nightfall prayer (‘isha) during the time of either, provided one joins them during a journey in which prayer may be shortened.”
However, (N) in the above paragraph refers to the “comment by Sheikh Nuh ‘Ali Salman”. Shaykh Nuh Ali Salman al-Qudat was a distinguished 20th century Shafi`i jurist from Jordan – in the West, his knowledge was transmitted through Shaykh Nuh Keller, who studied ‘Reliance of the Traveller’ under him.
Nevertheless, the scholars of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah consent that it is not permissible to combine the ‘Asr Prayer with the Jumu’ah Prayer. According to Shaykh Ibn Baaz, there is no evidence to the best of his knowledge to say that it is permissible to combine the ‘Asr Prayer with the Jumu’ah Prayer either from Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) or from any of his Companions (رضي الله عنه). The person, who does so, should repeat the ‘Asr prayer when its time is due. However, if the traveler offered the Jumu’ah Prayer as Dhuhr (Noon) Prayer and did not offer the Jumu’ah Prayer with the residents, then it is permissible for him to combine the ‘Asr Prayer with it, for a traveler is not obligated to offer the Jumu’ah. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) combined between the Dhuhr and ‘Asr in the Farewell Hajj, on the Day of Arafah (9th of Dhul-Hijjah) with one Adhan and two Iqamahs and did not offer the Jumu’ah Prayer.
Also, Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen explained the ruling on this issue, as follows:
It is not permissible to combine ‘Asr with Jumu’ah in the cases where it is permissible to combine Dhuhr and ‘Asr. If a traveler passes through a town and prays Jumu’ah with them, it is not permissible for him to combine ‘Asr with it.
If rain falls and it becomes permissible to combine Dhuhr and ‘Asr because of the rain, it is still not permissible to combine ‘Asr with Jumu’ah. If a sick person who is allowed to combine prayers attends Jumu’ah, it is not permissible for him to combine ‘Asr with Jumu’ah.
The Jumu’ah Prayer is not equivalent to the Dhuhr (Noon) Prayer; rather, it is a separate Ibadah (worship) and acts of Ibadah are Tawqifiy (bound by a religious text and not amenable to personal opinion) and none of them can be innovated by mere personal views. Moreover, Jumu’ah differs from Dhuhr in more than twenty rulings.
Last but not the least, the basic principle concerning acts of worship is that they should not be performed unless there is evidence that they should be performed.
Allahu A’lam (Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows best) and all Perfections belong to Allah, and all mistakes belong to me alone. May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) forgive me, Ameen.