Question # 30: What are the prescribed times of reciting takbir during Dhul-Hijjah?
bismi-llahi r-raḥmani r-raḥīm,
Assalamu ‘laikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
All praise and thanks are due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
First of all, we implore Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to help us serve His cause and render our work for His sake.
Shorter Answer: According to the most correct scholarly view, takbeer restricted to certain times (i.e., at the end of the five obligatory prayers) are combined on five days, i.e., the Day of ‘Arafah, the Day of Sacrifice (i.e., Eid al-Adha) and the three days of Tashreeq. It starts from Fajr on the day of ‘Arafah and lasts until the sun sets on the last day of the days of Tashreeq. Additionally, takbeer without time restrictions can be recited on all ten days (of Dhu’l-Hijjah) and the days of Tashreeq.
Long Answer: With regard to Takbeer on Eid al-Adha, it is prescribed from the beginning of the month until the end of the thirteenth day of Dhu’l-Hijjah, because Allah says: “That they may witness things that are of benefit to them (i.e. reward of Hajj in the Hereafter, and also some worldly gain from trade), and mention the Name of Allah on appointed days” (Soorah al-Hajj, 22:28) – which are the ten days; and because Allah says: “And remember Allah during the appointed Days [These are the three days of staying at Mina during the Hajj; 11th, 12th and 13th days of the month of Dhul-Hijjah]” (Soorah al-Baqarah, 2:203) – which are the days of Tashreeq.
And the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “The days of Tashreeq are the days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah.” (Narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh) Al-Bukhaari mentioned in his Saheeh, in a mu’allaq report, that Ibn ‘Umar and Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) used to go out to the market-place on first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijjah, reciting Takbeer, and the people used to recite Takbeer because of their Takbeer. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab and his son ‘Abd-Allah (رضي الله عنه) used to recite Takbeer during the days of Mina in the mosque and in the camps, and they would raise their voices until Mina echoed with their Takbeer. It was narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and a group of the Sahabah (رضي الله عنه) used to recite Takbeer following each of the five prayers from Fajr on the day of ‘Arafah until ‘Asr on the thirteenth day of Dhu’l-Hijjah. This applies to those who are not on Hajj.
Therefore, the takbeer is divided into two categories:
- Takbeer at any time. This is takbeer that is not limited to a specific time, and it is Sunnah to say it all the time, morning and evening, before prayer and after prayer, at all times.
It is Sunnah to recite takbeer at any time during the first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijjah and all the days of Tashreeq, starting from the beginning of the month of Dhu’l-Hijjah (i.e., from sunset on the last day of Dhu’l-Qa’dah) until the end of the days of al-Tashreeq, which is when the sun sets on the thirteenth day of Dhu’l-Hijjah).
- Takbeer at certain times. This is takbeer that is limited to the time immediately after prayer.
With regard to at certain times, it starts from Fajr on the day of ‘Arafah and lasts until the sun sets on the last day of the days of Tashreeq, in addition to the takbeer that may be recited at any time. So when a person says the tasleem at the end of the obligatory prayer, he should pray for forgiveness (by saying Astaghfir-Allah) three times, and say, “Allahumma anta al-salaam wa minka al-salaam, tabaarakta yaa dhaa’l-jalaali wa’l-ikraam”, then start the takbeer. (Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid)
Allahu A’lam (Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows best) and all Perfections belong to Allah, and all mistakes belong to me alone. May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) forgive me, Ameen.