Question # 100: What is the ruling on missed salah? What should be order of making up missed (qada) Salah, if it is already time for the next prayer? How about people who pray salatul umri?

bismi-llahi r-raḥmani r-raḥīm,

Assalamu ‘laikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,

All praise and thanks are due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).

Dear questioner,

First of all, we implore Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to help us serve His cause and render our work for His sake.

Shorter Answer: The scholars agree that it is obligatory for one who has forgotten the salah or slept through its time to make up the missed (qada’) prayer. But, missing a prayer deliberately is considered a major sin and the person has to sincerely repent. There is a difference of opinion among scholars as to making up of missed prayer is acceptable or not. There are scholars who say that he should make it up and that his prayer is valid, although he is a sinner; others say there is no way for one who leaves a salah intentionally to make its qada‘; he may however, resort to increasing his voluntary and supererogatory (nawafil) acts.

Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad are of the view that it is obligatory to pray missed prayers in order when making them up; however, they do not have to be offered in order, if the prayers are missed for more than a day, according to Hanafis and Maalikis.

If a person forgets one prayer, there are three scenarios:

  1. He remembers the missed prayer before he starts to offer the current prayer. In this case, he has to start with the missed prayer, and then pray the prayer that is currently due. However, if he fears that the time for the current prayer will end soon, the obligation to maintain the order is waived. On the other hand, when he comes to masjid, and the congregation prayer has already started; he should join the jama’ah with the intention of the missed prayer. So, if the number of rak’ah of his intended prayer is less than the number of rak’ah of congregational prayer, he has two option: a) if he wishes he may wait during the Tashahhud until the imam finishes, and say the tasleem with him, which is better, or b) if he wishes he may decide to leave him and say the tasleem.
  2. He prays the current prayer and completes it, and then he remembers that he still has to do the missed prayer. His current prayer is valid and he only has to pray the missed prayer, and he is excused for not praying them in the proper order. (Imam Abu Hanifah; Imam Ahmad)
  3. He remembers during the current prayer that he did not pray the previous prayer, which he missed. Under such circumstances, there are three choices:
  • He completes the current prayer, and then prays the missed prayer, and he does not have to repeat the current prayer. (Imam ash-Shafi’i; Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen)
  • He completes the current prayer, which then becomes a nawafil, then he prays the missed prayer, and then repeat the current prayer, in order to keep them in order (Imam Ahmad);
  • His stops the current prayer, then prays the prayer he missed, then prays the current prayer (Imam Ahmad).

Prayer to make up for the prayers of a lifetime (salaat al-qada’ al-‘umri) is a bid‘ah that has been introduced into Islam for which there is no proof from Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) or from his Companions (رضي الله عنه).

Long Answer:

RULING ON MISSED SALAH

The scholars agree that it is obligatory for one who has forgotten the salah or slept through its time to make up the missed (qada’) prayer. This opinion is based on the hadith of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم): “There is no negligence while one is asleep but forgetfulness occurs when one is awake. If one of you forgets the prayer or sleeps through its time, then he should perform the salah when he recalls it.” (Jami` at-Tirmidhi- graded sahih)

[However, missing]… a prayer deliberately… is a major sin, and it is so serious that some of the scholars stated that the one who does this is a kaafir. (as it says in Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat Samaahat al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz). [Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “Between a man and shirk and kufr there stands his giving up prayer.” (Narrated by Muslim)] The one who does this has to repent sincerely, according to scholarly consensus. With regard to making up the prayer, there was a difference of opinion among the scholars as to whether or not it would be accepted from him if he makes it up afterwards. Most of the scholars said that he should make it up and that his prayer is valid, although he is a sinner (i.e., if he does not repent – and Allah knows best), as Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthyameen quoted from them in al-Sharh al-Mumti’.

The view favored by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) is that it is not valid, and that it is not prescribed for him to make it up. He said in al-Ikhtiyarat: “It is not prescribed for the one who misses a prayer deliberately to make it up, and the prayer, if he makes it up, is not valid; rather he should do a lot of voluntary (nawafil) prayers. This is the view of a group among the Salaf.” One of the contemporary scholars who regarded this view as more correct is Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him); he quoted as evidence for that the words of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), “Whoever does an action that is not in accordance with this matter of ours (i.e., Islam), will have it rejected.” (Agreed upon) (Islamqa.info)

It was narrated from Tamim Dari that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: The first thing for which a person will be brought to account on the Day of Resurrection will be his prayer. If it is complete, then the voluntary (prayers) will also be recorded for him (as an increase). If it is not complete then Allah will say to His angels: ‘Look and see whether you find any voluntary prayers for My slave, and take them to make up what is lacking from his obligatory prayers.’ Then all his deeds will be reckoned in like manner.” (Sunan Ibn Majah – Graded sahih)

Prayer is an act of worship that is to performed at specific times, and whoever does not do an act of worship that is tied to a specific time – such as prayer and fasting – until that time is over, with no excuse, then repents, does not have to make up what he omitted, because this act of worship has been limited by the Lawgiver to the beginning and ending of that time (Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen)

Ibn Hazm said: “…It is correct to say that if one “misses” something, he cannot make it up, for if he makes it up or could make it up, the act would not be “missed.” The entire Muslim ummah is in agreement with the statement and ruling that if the time of the salah has elapsed, then the salah is “over” [i.e., “qada” in Arabic], but if one can make it up, the statement that the salah is “over” becomes false and untrue; therefore, there is no way that it could ever be made up. The people who agree with us on this include ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, his son ‘Abdullah, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqas, Salman al-Farsi, ibn Mas’ud, al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Budail al-‘Uqaili, Muhammad ibn Sireen, Mutraf ibn ‘Abdullah, ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdulaziz, and others.

Concerning our statement that the one who intentionally leaves a salah until its time expires is to repent to Allah, the Exalted, ask for His forgiveness, pray an increased number of nawafil, and do good deeds. This statement is based on Allah’s words: “Then there succeeded them a generation who missed prayers and followed after lusts. But they will meet destruction save him who repents and believes and does right. Such will enter the garden and will not be wronged,” (Soorah Maryam, 19:59-60) and: “… those who, when they do an evil thing or wrong themselves, remember Allah and implore forgiveness for their sins – who forgives sins, save Allah – and will not knowingly repeat the wrong they did,” (Soorah Al-Imran, 3:135) and: “Whoever does an atom’s weight of good shall see it and whoever does an atom’s weight of evil shall see it,” (Soorah Az- Zalzalah, 99:7-8) and: ” … We set a just balance for the day of resurrection so no soul shall be wronged.”(Soorah Al-Anbiya, 21:47)” (‘Fiqh Us-Sunnah’ by As-Sayyid Sabiq)

ORDER OF MAKING UP MISSED SALAH

Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad are of the view that it is obligatory to pray missed prayers in order when making them up. The evidence for that is the fact that when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) missed some prayers on the day of al-Khandaq, he made them up in order. Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Jabir ibn ‘Abd-Allah that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) prayed ‘Asr on the day of al-Khandaq after the sun had set, then he prayed Maghrib after that. (al-Mughni)

Al-Shaafi’i said: It is not essential, because one is making up an obligatory prayer that has been missed, so it is not essential to offer them in order, as with fasting… Imam Malik and Abu Hanifah said that they do not have to be offered in order if there are more than a day and a night of prayers, because doing that with regard to more than that period would be too difficult. So the obligation is waived, just like making up missed Ramadan fasts in sequence. (al-Mughni)

[However,] if a person forgets one prayer and does not remember until the time for the next prayer begins, then he remembers it, one of the following three scenarios must apply:

  1. He remembers the missed prayer before he starts to offer the current prayer. In this case, he has to start with the missed prayer, then pray the prayer that is currently due.
  1. He prays the current prayer and completes it, and then he remembers that he still has to do the missed prayer that he has not prayed yet. His current prayer is valid and he only has to pray the missed prayer, and he is excused for not praying them in the proper order because he forgot.
  1. He remembers during the current prayer that he did not pray the previous prayer, which he missed. So he should complete the current prayer, which then becomes a nawafil (supererogatory) prayer, then he should pray the prayer his missed, and then repeat the current prayer, in order to keep them in the proper order. This is the view of Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him) (See al-Mughni). This is also the view of ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه). Imam Malik narrated in al-Muwatta’ that Naafi’ ibn ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Umar used to say, “Whoever forgets a prayer then remembers it only when he is with the Imam, then when the Imam says the salaam, let him pray the prayer that he had forgotten, then let him pray the other after that.” Shaykh al-Islam (Ibn Taymiyah – may Allah have mercy on him) said: “When he remembers the prayer that he missed during the (current) prayer, it is as if he remembered before he started it. But if he does not remember until the current prayer is finished, then the current prayer is valid according to the majority of scholars, such as Abu Hanifah, al-Shafi’i and Ahmad…” (al-Fataawa al-Kubra)

His completing the prayer that he is currently praying is mustahabb (recommended), not wajib (obligatory). If he stops that prayer, then prays the prayer he missed, then prays the current prayer, that is permissible. Muhanna said: “I said to Ahmad, ‘I was praying ‘Isha, then I remembered that I had not prayed Maghrib. So I prayed ‘Isha’, then I prayed Maghrib and repeated ‘Isha’.’ Ahmad said, ‘You did right.’ I said, ‘Should I not have stopped praying when I remembered?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘So how did I get it right?’ He said, ‘Both are permissible.’” (al-Mughni).

Some of the scholars are of the view that he should complete the (current) prayer that he is praying, and then do the missed prayer, and he does not have to repeat the current prayer. This is the view of al-Shafi’i, as stated in al-Majmoo’. This was also the view favored by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him). (Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen)

Further, Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said; “if a person comes (to the mosque) and the imam is praying ‘Isha’, whether he is with a group or not, he should join the imam, with the intention of praying Maghrib. It does not matter if the imam’s intention is different from that of one who is praying behind him, because the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “Actions are but by intentions, and each person will have but that which he intended.” If they join him in the second rak’ah, they can say the tasleem with him, because they will have prayed three rak’ahs, and it does not matter if they sit for the Tashahhud during their first rak’ah. If they join him in the first rak’ah, then when he stands up for the fourth rak’ah, they can sit and recite the Tashahhud and say the tasleem, then join him in what remains of ‘Isha prayer.

The second opinion concerning this matter is that they should join him with the intention of praying ‘Isha’, then pray Maghrib after that, and the obligation to offer the prayers in order is waived because of the duty to join the congregation.

The third view is that they should pray Maghrib on their own, then join him in whatever is left of ‘Isha’ prayer. The last two views involve something about which there is some reservation. The first view involves neglecting the order of prayers by putting ‘Isha’ before Maghrib. The second view involves having two congregations in one mosque at the same time, which is dividing the ummah.

But the first view which we mentioned is the correct one. Someone may say that there is something wrong, which is saying the tasleem before the imam. In fact there is nothing wrong with this. It is narrated in some places in the Sunnah that a member of the congregation may do something separately from the imam, such as in the fear prayer, where the imam leads them in one rak’ah, then they complete the prayer by themselves and leave. [Alternatively, he can wait during the Tashahhud until the imam finishes the prayer and say the tasleem with him. This is the view of Imam al-Shafi’i (may Allah have mercy on him), and is one of the two views narrated from Imam Ahmad. Al-Mardawi stated in al-Insaf that this view was favored by a number of the companions of Imam Ahmad, including Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah and his grandfather al-Majd ibn Taymiyah]

[Also,] the obligation to do them in order is waived… if there is a fear that the time for the current prayer will end soon…

PRAYER TO MAKE UP FOR THE PRAYERS OF LIFETIME (SALAAT AL-QADA’ AL-‘UMRI)

The hadith “Whoever prays the five obligatory prayers of the night and day on the last Friday of Ramadan that will make up for what he missed of prayers during that year” is undoubtedly mawdoo‘(fabricated). (Ash-Shawkani (may Allah have mercy on him) in al-Ahaadeeth al-Mawdoo‘ah). The scholars of the Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas said:  “Prayer is an act of worship and the basic principle concerning it is tawqeef i.e., stopping at what has been narrated in shari‘ah (and not introducing anything new)… There is no proof from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), or from his Companions (رضي الله عنه), or from the leaders of guidance (may Allah have mercy on them) that they offered this prayer or instructed or encouraged others to do so. … [Thus,] “prayer to make up for the prayers of a lifetime (salaat al-qada’ al-‘umri)” is a bid‘ah that has been introduced into Islam for which Allah has not prescribed.” (End quote from Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah, Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz, Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Razzaaq ‘Afeefi, Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Ghadyaan, Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Qa‘ood)

The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “…The worst of things are those that are newly invented; every newly-invented thing is an innovation and every innovation is going astray, and every going astray is in the Fire…” (Sunan an-Nasa’i; Graded sahih)

(The above answers to ‘Order of Making up Missed Salah’ and ‘Prayer to make up for the Prayers of Lifetime’ are based on various answers provided by Islamqa.info on the topic)

Allahu A’lam (Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows best) and all Perfections belong to Allah, and all mistakes belong to me alone. May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) forgive me, Ameen.

Wassalaam