Question # 82: Assalam aliekum, request you to advise as per hadith if one can fast and do hajj on behalf of a person who is no longer with us (dead)?
bismi-llahi r-raḥmani r-raḥīm,
Assalamu ‘laikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
All praise and thanks are due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
First of all, we implore Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to help us serve His cause and render our work for His sake.
Shorter Answer: Refer to Question # 4: Fasting on behalf of deceased person for first part of the question.
As for performing Hajj on behalf of the deceased, it is permissible provided such person has already performed Hajj for himself, then his Hajj on behalf of the deceased is valid.
Long Answer: As for performing Hajj on behalf of the deceased, the following ahadith are worth noting:
- It was reported from Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه) that a woman from Juhaynah came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and said: “My mother vowed to go for Hajj, but she did not go for Hajj before she died. Should I do Hajj on her behalf?” He said, “Yes, do Hajj on her behalf. Do you not think that if your mother was in debt you would pay it off for her? Pay off the debt that is owed to Allah, for Allah is more deserving that what is owed to Him should be paid off.” (Narrated by al-Bukhari)
- ‘Abdullaah ibn Buraydah reported that his father (رضي الله عنه) said: “While I was sitting with the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم), a woman came to him and said: ‘I gave my mother a slave-woman in charity, and now my mother has died.’ He said: ‘You have got your reward, and your right of inheritance has brought your gift back to you.’ She said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, she still had one month to fast – can I fast it on her behalf?’ He said, ‘Fast it on her behalf.’ She said, ‘She never went to Hajj – can I perform Hajj on her behalf?’ He said, ‘Perform Hajj on her behalf.’” (Reported by Muslim)
- It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) heard a man saying “Labbayka ‘an Shubrumah (At your service, O Allah, on behalf of Shubrumah).” The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Who is Shubrumah?” He said, “A relative of mine.” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “Have you ever done Hajj before?” He said, “No.” he said, “Do this Hajj for yourself, then do Hajj on behalf of Shubrumah.” (Narrated by Abu Dawood, Ibn Maajah – this version was narrated by him. The hadith was classed as sahih by Shaykh al-Albaani in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel)
Allahu A’lam (Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows best) and all Perfections belong to Allah, and all mistakes belong to me alone. May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) forgive me, Ameen.