Question # 439: How many daughters did Prophet (saws) had and from which of his wives?

bismi-llahi r-raḥmani r-raḥīm,

Assalamu ‘laikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,

All praise and thanks are due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).

Dear questioner,

First of all, we implore Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to help us serve His cause and render our work for His sake.

Shorter Answer: According to the most correct opinion, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) had seven children, three boys and four girls. The boys were: al-Qasim, ‘Abd-Allah, Ibrahim; the girls were: Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthoom and Fatimah. All of his children were born from Khadijah (رضي الله عنها)  except Ibrahim, who was born from his concubine Maariyah al-Qibtiyyah (رضي الله عنها).

Long Answer: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was blessed with seven children, three sons and four daughters:

Al-Qasim: He was the first child of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم). Born in Makkah before the Prophetic mission, he died at the age of two years and some months. His mother was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid (رضي الله عنها).

Ibrahim: He was born in Madeenah in Thul-Hijjah of 8 A.H., and he died in 10 A.H., when he was one year and seven months old. His mother was Maariyah Al-Qibtiyyah (رضي الله عنها). On the day Ibrahim died, there was a solar eclipse, and some people said that the eclipse had occurred due to his death. Thereupon, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) , addressed this misconception, saying: “The sun and the moon are two of the signs of Allah, and they do not eclipse on the death or birth of anyone.” (Al- Bukhari and Muslim) It was on his death that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) , said: “The eyes shed tears, and the heart is saddened, but we will only say what pleases our Lord. Indeed, we are grieved at your departure O Ibrahim!” (Muslim)

‘Abdullah: Some say he was born before the Prophetic mission, and others state he was born afterwards. He was nicknamed At-Tayyiband At-Taahir. He was the second one of the children of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) , to die after Al-Qasim, and thus Al-‘Aas bin Waa’il As-Sahmi said, “He will not get any more children, and thus he is Al-Abtar (the one cut off or deprived),” so Allah The Almighty revealed in the Qur’an: “Indeed, your enemy is the one cut off (from all good in this world and the Hereafter).” (Soorah Al-Kawthar, 108: 3)

Zaynab: She was the eldest daughter of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم). Her mother was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid (رضي الله عنها). She was married to Al-‘Aas bin Ar-Rabee’, and gave birth to ‘Ali and Umamah. When Zaynab’s husband Al-‘Aas bin Ar-Rabee’ embraced Islam, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), permitted her to rejoin him as a wife.

Ruqayyah: She was the second eldest daughter of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم). Her mother was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid (رضي الله عنها). Ruqayyah (رضي الله عنها) was married to ‘Utbah ibn Abi Lahab, but when Allah revealed in the Qur’an: “May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined is he.” (Soorah Al-Masad, 111: 1), Abu Lahab commanded ‘Utbah to divorce her, which he did. He had not yet consummated the marriage with her.

Ruqayyah (رضي الله عنها) embraced Islam along with her mother. Later, ‘Uthman (رضي الله عنه), married her and she immigrated with him to Abyssinia twice. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), said about her and ‘Uthman: “They are the first two people to migrate for the sake of Allah after the migration of Prophet Loot.” She (رضي الله عنها) gave birth to a child, who was named ‘Abdullah. When he reached two years of age he died, and she did not have any children after that.

Ruqayyah (رضي الله عنها) fell sick whilst the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was preparing for the Battle of Badr. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), instructed her husband ‘Uthman (رضي الله عنه), to stay behind and take care of her. She died whilst he (صلى الله عليه و سلم), was in the battle, one year and five months after the Hijrah (emigration from Makkah to Madeenah).

Umm Kulthoom: She was the third daughter born to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid (رضي الله عنها). She was married to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affaan (رضي الله عنه), after the death of her sister Ruqayyah (رضي الله عنها). When she (رضي الله عنها) also died, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “If I had a third daughter, I would have given her also to ‘Uthman in marriage.” While he (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was burying her, his eyes shed tears and he instructed some of the Companions (رضي الله عنهم), to take her down to her grave while he remained at the edge of the grave.

Fatimah: Her mother was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid (رضي الله عنها). She (رضي الله عنها) was the dearest of the children of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), to his heart. She was born when he (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was forty-one years old.

Fatimah (رضي الله عنها) married ‘Ali bin Abi Taalib (رضي الله عنه), and gave birth to five children. She died six months after the demise of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم).

(The above reply is based on Islamweb.net, a web site belonging to the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs in the State of Qatar)

Allahu A’lam (Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows best) and all Perfections belong to Allah, and all mistakes belong to me alone. May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) forgive me, Ameen.

Wassalaam