Question # 317: Many people in the don’t know their fathers name then how will he recognize their fathers when Allah SWT will call in their fathers name on the day of judgement?
Bismi-llahi r-raḥmani r-raḥīm,
Assalamu ‘laikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
All praise and thanks are due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
First of all, we implore Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to help us serve His cause and render our work for His sake.
Shorter Answer: Islam forbids attributing the child to anyone other than his father. On the Day of Resurrection, the people will be called by their father’s names. As for those, who do not know his/her father because he/she was disowned in a case of li’aan or was an illegitimate child, such person will be called in the Hereafter as he/she was called in this world, whether by his father’s name or his mother’s name.
Long Answer: Islam forbids attributing the child to anyone other than his father. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says in the Qur’an: “Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just with Allah. But if you know not their father’s (names, call them) your brothers in Faith and Mawaaleekum (your freed slaves). And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake, except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend. And Allah is Ever Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful” (Soorah al-Ahzaab, 33:5)
It was narrated from Abu Dharr (رضي الله عنه) that he heard the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) say: “There is no man who knowingly attributes himself to someone other than his father but he has committed an act of kufr, and whoever claims to belong to people to whom he does not belong, let him take his place in Hell.” (Narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim)
In his Saheeh, al-Bukhari included a chapter entitled “Chapter: The people will be called by their father’s names, in which he quoted a hadith from Ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه), that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “A banner will be raised for the betrayer on the Day of Resurrection and it will be said: This is the betrayer of So and so the son of So and so.”
In Sunan Abi Dawood, it is narrated with a jayyid isnad from Abu’l-Darda’ that he said: The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “You will be called on the Day of Resurrection by your names and the names of your fathers, so choose good names for yourselves.”
It says in Kashf al-Khifa’ (2/375): … Ibn al-Salaah, …al-Nawawi, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-‘Iraaqi, Ibn Hajar in some of his books and by others. They said: … a man may not know for sure who his father is, such as one who is disowned in a case of li’aan or an illegitimate child, so how can he be called by his father’s name? The answer is: “…As for the one whose his father is not known, he will be called as he was called in this world, so a person will be called in the Hereafter as he was called in this world, whether he was called by his father’s name or his mother’s.” (Islamqa.info)
Allahu A’lam (Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows best) and all Perfections belong to Allah, and all mistakes belong to me alone. May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) forgive me, Ameen.
 li‘aan is a process, where the husband accuses the wife of adultery and she denies it, and each swears oaths invoking the curse of Allah if he or she is lying.