Question # 196: As Salaamu Alaykum; I want to know did Allah preplanned or wrote our lives before we were born? In that case, does man have free will?
Bismi-llahi r-raḥmani r-raḥīm,
Assalamu ‘laikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
All praise and thanks are due to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
First of all, we implore Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to help us serve His cause and render our work for His sake.
Shorter Answer: Allah created the Pen and instructed it to write everything until the Day of Resurrection in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz and this decree of creation was written fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth. Therefore, the belief in the sixth pillars of faith i.e., al-qadar (the divine will and decree) is based on the following four beliefs:
- Knowledge, i.e., that Allah knows what His creation will do, by virtue of His eternal knowledge.
- Writing, i.e., that Allah has written the destiny of all creatures in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz.
- Will, i.e., that what Allah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen.
- Creation, i.e., that Allah is the Creator of all things, including the actions of His slaves. They do their actions in a real sense, but He is the Creator of them.
On the other hand, man has been given free will and choice, based on which he will be brought to account (rewarded/punished), although Allah knows what he will do/choose and what his ultimate destiny will be. Some people argue that why should man strive, when everything has already been decreed; others claim that man’s actions is forced obedience, while some others say what Allah wills and what He loves are the same thing and therefore, attribute their sins to the decree of Allah.
The reality of qadar is that Allah does not compel man to do evil, rather He clearly shows him the right path. He decrees ends and means; He did not decree effects without causes, i.e., if Allah decrees that so and so will go to Paradise, He also decrees that he will believe and do righteous deeds and vice versa. However, prior decree of Allah does not cancel out the need to strive (as each person will be facilitated to do his deeds), and it does not imply that one should depend on Allah’s decree alone. Therefore, belief in al-qadar does not contradict the idea that a person has free will with regard to actions. However, the will and ability of man are subject to the will and decree of Allah.
The scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah said, Allah’s Will is of two types: Universal (qadari) will and His legislative (shar’ee) will. His qadari or kawni (universal) encompasses all that exists, concerning which is said that whatever Allah wills happens, and whatever He does not will, does not happen.; it pertains to His decrees concerning His creation, while His shar’ee will encompasses all that He loves and is pleased with and wants His slaves to follow. The shar’ee will does not necessarily come to pass, unless it is joined by qadari will. This type of will clearly indicates that Allah does not love sin and kufr (disbelief); He does not enjoin them and He does not accept them, even though He wills that they should exist. Consequently, the blessed ones are those for whom Allah decrees the same by His universal qadari will as by His shar’ee will. The doomed ones are those for whom He wills by His universal qadari will that which He does not will by His shar’ee will.
Lastly, belief in al-qadar is the real test of the extent of a person’s belief in Allah because human mind cannot independently come to understand this mystery of Allah. Delving into the matter in depth means that one may be forsaken by Allah and lost in confusion, deprivation and transgression. Allah has withheld knowledge of qadar from His creation, and has forbidden them to seek to understand it. Allah says in the Qur’an: “He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they will be questioned.” Understanding this is not aimed at restricting human thought, but at protecting the human mind from wasting its energy on something at which it cannot excel, so that it can engage in areas where he can succeed. Nevertheless, it is obligatory to believe in qadar.
DIVINE WILL AND DECREE
Everything from when Allah created the Pen until the Day of Resurrection is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, because [as Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said] when Allah first created the Pen, He said to it: “Write.” It said: “My Lord, what should I write?” He said: “Write what is to be. So at that moment it began to write what would be until the Day of Resurrection. [Narrated by Abu Dawood; classed as sahih by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood)] And it is proven from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) that when the fetus in its mother’s womb is four months old, Allah sends an angel to breathe the soul into it and write down its provision, its lifespan and its deeds, and whether it is doomed or blessed. (Fataawa Noor ‘ala al-Darb by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen)
Belief in al-qadar (the divine will and decree) is [the sixth] pillars of faith, because the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, when he answered Jibreel’s question about faith: “(It means) believing in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Last Day, and to believe in al-qadar (the divine decree) both good and bad.” [Narrated by Muslim]. [Hence,] what is meant by al-qadar is that Allah has decreed all things from eternity and knows that those will happen at times that are known to Him, and in specific ways, and that He has written that and willed it, and those happen according to what He has decreed. (‘al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar’ by Dr ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Mahmoud)
[Therefore,] Belief in al-qadar is based on [believing in] four things:
- Knowledge, i.e., that Allah knows what His creation will do, by virtue of His eternal knowledge.
- Writing, i.e., that Allah has written the destiny of all creatures in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz.
- Will, i.e., that what Allah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen. There is no movement in the heavens or on earth but it happens by His will.
- Creation and formation, i.e., that Allah is the Creator of all things, including the actions of His slaves. They do their actions in a real sense, and He is the Creator of them and of their actions.
Whoever believes in the above four beliefs, believes in al-qadar. The Qur’an and ahadith affirm these things in numerous revelations, [for example]:
- “Know you not that Allah knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz). Verily, that is easy for Allah” (Soorah al-Hajj, 22:70)
- “And with Him are the keys of the Ghayb (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record” (Soorah al-An’aam, 6:59)
- “No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah” (Soorah al-Hadeed, 57:22)
- “And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)” (Soorah al-Takweer, 81:29)
- “Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz)” (Soorah al-Qamar, 54:49)
- “Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakeel (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian) over all things” (Soorah al-Zumar, 39:62)
- Muslim narrated that ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas (رضي الله عنه) said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) say: “Allah wrote down the decrees of creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.” He said: “And His Throne was upon the water.”
- The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “The pens have been lifted and the pages have dried.” (Narrated and classed as sahih by al-Tirmidhi, from the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas (رضي الله عنه))
HUMAN’S FREE WILL
[On the other hand,] man has free will and choice by means of which he does some things and refrains from others, and he believes or disbelieves, and he obeys or disobeys, for which he will be brought to account and rewarded or punished, although Allah knows what he will do, what he will choose and what his ultimate destiny will be. But Allah does not compel him to do evil, or to choose kufr, rather He clearly shows him the path and He has sent Messengers and revealed Books, and shown him the right way. [And then whosoever] goes astray, does so to his own loss. [Hence,] Allah tells us that man believes and does righteous deeds by his own choice and free will, then he enters Paradise, or he disbelieves and does evil deeds by his own choice and free will, then he enters Hell.
Every person knows in his/her own heart that whether his/her deeds – good and evil, obedient and sinful – are done by one’s own choice, and no one feel that there is any force compelling them to do so. One can curse, swear, lie and backbite, just as one can praise Allah, glorify Him, pray for forgiveness, speak the truth and give sincere advice. One can walk to places of idle entertainment, falsehood and evil, just as one can walk to the mosques or places of goodness and obedience. One can strike with his/her hand, steal, speak falsehood and betray, or one can help the needy, do good and do favors with one’s hands. Everyone does some of these deeds and does not feel that he is compelled or forced, rather does them by his/her own free will and then he/she will be called to account for them; if they were good, then the consequences will be good, and if they were bad then the consequences will be bad.
Allah says in the Qur’an:
- “Indeed he succeeds who purifies his ownself (i.e. obeys and performs all that Allah ordered, by following the true Faith of Islamic Monotheism and by doing righteous good deeds). And indeed he fails who corrupts his ownself (i.e. disobeys what Allah has ordered by rejecting the true Faith of Islamic Monotheism or by following polytheism, or by doing every kind of evil wicked deeds)” (Soorah al-Shams, 91:9-10)
- “Allah wronged them not, but they wronged themselves” (Soorah Aal ‘Imran 3:117)
- “Has not the story reached them of those before them? — The people of Nooh, ‘Aad, and Thamood, the people of Ibrahim, the dwellers of Madyan and the cities overthrown [i.e. the people to whom Lut preached]; to them came their Messengers with clear proofs. So it was not Allah Who wronged them, but they used to wrong themselves” (Soorah al-Tawbah 9:70)
SPECIOUS ARGUMENTS AND THEIR REFUTATIONS
- [Some people argue that why should man strive, when everything has already been decreed by Allah. The reply can be found in the following ahadith:]
- Jaabir said “Suraaqah ibn Maalik ibn Ju`sham came and said ‘O messenger of Allah, explain our religion to us as if we had only just been created. What should be strive for today? Is it for something concerning which the pens have dried and the decree has been issued, or is it concerning something that is yet to be decided?’ He (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, ‘No, it is for something concerning which the pens have dried and the decree has been issued’ He said. ‘Then why would be strive?’ He (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said ‘Strive for each person will be facilitated to do his deeds’ (Muslim)
- Tirmidhi narrated in his sunan that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (رضي الله عنه) said to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم): “O’ Messenger of Allah, do you think that what we strive to do emanates from our own initiative or something that has been decreed already?” He said, “It is something that has been decreed already, O’ son of al-Khattab. Every person will be facilitated to what he intends to do. If he is one of the blessed, he will do that which will take him to Paradise, and if he is one of the doomed, he will be facilitated to do that which will send him to Hell.” (sahih hasan)
- Bukhari narrated that ‘Imran ibn Husayn said: “A man said, ‘O’ Messenger of Allah, is it known who will go to Paradise and who will go to Hell?’ He (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, ‘Yes.’ He asked, ‘Then why should people strive?’ He said: ‘Everyone will be guided to do that which he was created.’ “
- Muslim narrated that Ali (رضي الله عنه) said: We were in a funeral in Baqee al-Gharqad that Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) came to us and we sat around him. He had a stick with him. He lowered his head and began to scratch the earth with his stick, and then said: There is not one amongst you whom a place in Paradise or Hell has not been allotted and about whom it has not been written down whether he would be an evil person or a blessed person. A person said: Allah’s Messenger, should we not then depend upon our destiny and abandon our deeds (i.e., strive not)? Thereupon he said: Acts of everyone will be facilitated in, that which has been created for him so that whoever belongs to the company of the blessed will have good works made easier for him and whoever belongs to the unfortunate ones will have evil acts made easier for him. He then recited this verse (from the Qur’an): “As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him. And believes in Al-Husna (the best). We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But he who is greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And belies Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path for evil” (Soorah Al-Lail, 92:5-10).
[Moreover, the group that claims] that belief in qadar implies that one need not take action or seek the means to an end [has] erred in its claim that when a person believes in predestination (qadar) he does not need to strive. It did not recognize the reality of qadar, for Allah decreed ends and means; He did not decree effects without causes. Whoever claims that Allah decreed the ends and the effects without the means and causes is fabricating a serious lie about Allah. When Allah decrees that so and so should be given provision, He also creates the means by which he will earn that provision. Similarly, If Allah decrees that so and so will go to Paradise, He also decrees that he will believe and do righteous deeds, and will adhere to the commandments of Allah and vice versa. Again, Allah may decree that so and so will call upon Him and seek His help, then He answers his prayer and fulfils his hopes. He may decree that another person will not call upon Him and seek His help, so He leaves him to his own devices and lets him flounder in his misery. For Allah decrees the effects and decrees their causes. [For example, if a teacher knows that one of his students will not make the grade this year because he is too careless and lazy, then this student fails just as the teacher knew he would, would any wise person say that the teacher forced him to fail, or would the student have any right to say “I did not succeed because this teacher knew that I would never succeed”?]
Implementing the means is part of the qadar of Allah. It does not contradict qadar at all. The prior decree of Allah does not cancel out the need to strive, and it does not imply that we should depend only on Allah’s decree. But we must note that even if a person pursues the means, it is not permissible for him to rely on them alone and put his trust in them. He must put his trust in the One Who created them and initiated them.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “…That Allah knows all things the way they are, and He has made for things means that may lead to these things… [For example,] a man knows that crops will grow as the result of his watering the seeds that he has planted, but if he says: He knows that it will happen so there is no need to plant seeds, then he is ignorant and misguided because Allah knows what will come about by those means. Similarly, if He knows that this one will be blessed in the Hereafter and that one will be doomed, we say: it is because that one does the deeds of the doomed, so Allah knows that he will be doomed because of his deeds. If it is said that he is doomed even if he does not do anything, this is false, because Allah does not admit anyone to Hell except for his sin, as Allah says in the Qur’an: “That I will fill Hell with you [Iblees (Satan)] and those of them (mankind) that follow you, together” (Soorah Saad, 38:85). So He swore to fill it with Iblees and his followers, and those who follow Iblees have disobeyed Allah, but Allah does not punish anyone for what He knows he will do until he does it…
Hence Allah commanded people to pray, seek forgiveness from Allah and other means. The one who says, I will not pray or ask, and I will rely on the divine decree, is also mistaken, because Allah has made praying and asking means of attaining His forgiveness, mercy, guidance, support and provision. If He has decreed some good for a person to be attained by means of du’aa’ that will not be attained it without du’aa’. What Allah has decreed and knows about people’s situations and how their lives will end, it is only decreed through the means that lead to that specific outcome. Nothing in this world or in the Hereafter happens except through means, and Allah is the Creator of the means and the ends…
The one who turns away from the commands and prohibitions, promises and warnings, and focuses only on the divine decree has gone astray, and the one who strives to follow the commands and prohibitions and ignores the divine decree has gone astray… (Muqtatafaat min Majmoo’ al-Fataawa)
- Some people say that if Allah knew everything that is to happen, and He has written all that in a Book which is with Him, then what is the meaning of the ayah, “Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills)” (Soorah Ra’d, 13:39) If people’s provision and lifespan is decided and they do not increase or decrease, then how do we interpret the hadith, “Whoever would like his provision to be increased and his life to be prolonged, let him uphold the ties of kinship”?
The answer is that provision and lifespans are of two types: one type which has been decreed and is written in Umm al-Kitaab (Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz), which cannot be changed or altered [i.e., definite and is known only to Allah], and another type of which Allah informs His angels. This is the type which can increase and decrease… Allah commands the angel to write down the lifespan of His slave. If he upholds the ties of kinship, He commands the angel to increase his lifespan and provision. The angel does not know whether it will be increased or not, but Allah knows how matters will proceed, and when the appointed time (of death) comes, it cannot be brought forward or delayed. This is what may be blotted out or confirmed, such as extending people’s lifespan and provision. But whatever was previously known to Allah cannot be blotted out or confirmed, and that knowledge rests with Allah.
- Ibn al-Qayyim also discussed [a] group in his book Shifaa’ al-‘Aleel: “Then there emerged another group which claimed that man’s voluntary actions – and in their view he has no choice in the matter. This is forced obedience. He is not guided to do that for which he was created, rather he is forced and compelled… So Allah has obliged His creation to do His deeds, and they are not able to do that, and then He punishes them for doing it, when in fact they are not the ones who do it. Then they were followed by another group of worshippers who said that there was no sin in the universe at all, for the person who does something is obeying the will of Allah and acting in harmony with it… Their thinkers and philosophers who established this school of thought stated that in the case of Allah, what He wills and what He loves are the same thing, so what He loves is what He wills. He willed everything that exists in the universe, and everything that He willed, He also loves… Allah punishes His slaves severely for doing that which they cannot avoid doing, and for not doing that which they are incapable of doing. Rather He punishes them for doing His deeds, which man is incapable of doing and is not guided to do, rather he is compelled to do it… this type of person wants to “attribute their sins to the decrees (of Allah), so that they can absolve themselves of guilt and sin, and say that in fact these are the deeds of the All-Knowing Creator… These people are worse kaafir (disbelievers) than those (i.e., those who simply disbelieve in qadar), and are more astray.”
[In fact,] belief in al-qadar does not contradict the idea that a person has free will with regard to actions in which he has free choice. He can choose whether to or not to do things that he is able to do of acts of worship or sinful actions… [However,] the will and ability of man are subject to the will and decree of Allah. (‘Risaalat Sharh Usool al-Eemaan’ by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen)
[However,] the claim that Allah loves and is pleased with everything that He has decreed and created …is a false claim, for Allah willed that kufr (disbelief), shirk (polytheism) and other sins should exist, but He hates them and forbids His slaves to do these things. [In other words, although Allah wills that disobedience and sin should exist by His decree, He does not love them or accept them or command them; rather he hates them and forbids them.] (For further explanation, refer the following section)
OPINION OF THE SCHOLARS OF AHL AS-SUNNAH
Those (scholars) of Ahl as-Sunnah who examined this issue said that in the Book of Allah, His Will is of two types: Universal will of Allah and His legislative will (al-iraadah al-kawniyah waliraadah ash-shar’iyah). His qadari will, i.e., His decrees concerning His creation, and His shar’ee will, i.e., the laws that He wants His slaves to follow. His shar’ee will encompasses all that He loves and is pleased with; His qadari or kawni (universal) will encompasses all that exists.
His shar’ee will is referred to in ayat such as the following:
- “… Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you…^ (Soorah al-Baqarah, 2:185)
- “… Allah does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favor to you that you may be thankful.” (Soorah Maidah, 5:6)
This kind of will (shar’ee) does not necessarily come to pass, unless it is joined by the second type of will. This type of will clearly indicates that Allah does not love sin, disobedience, misguidance and kufr (disbelief); He does not enjoin them and He does not accept them, even though He wills that they should exist.
Allah loves and accepts things that have to do with His religious, shar’ee will; He rewards those who do them and grants them admittance to Paradise, helping them in this world and in the Hereafter. This will encompasses all kinds of acts of obedience, whether or not they happen. Allah’s universal or qadari will is the will that encompasses all that exists, concerning which we say that whatever Allah wills happens, and whatever He does not will, does not happen. This is the will referred to in ayah such as the following: “And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam; and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted…” (Soorah Al-Anam, 6:125) This will is all-encompassing and nothing that exists operates outside of it. Everything that happens in the universe happens by this will of Allah. This will applies to both believers and disbelievers equally. This will encompasses all that happens, both obedience and disobedience, but it does not include that which does not happen.
In relation to both kinds of will, created beings fall into four categories:
- Those to which both kinds of will apply, i.e., righteous deeds. For Allah wills them by His shar’ee will, and He enjoins, loves and accepts them, and He wills them by His universal qadari will, otherwise they (righteous deeds) would not happen.
- Those to which only His shar’ee will apply, which are the righteous deeds that Allah enjoins, but the kuffaar and immoral people disobey Him. All of this is His shar’ee will, which He loves and accepts, whether it happens or not.
- Those to which only His qadari (universal) will apply, which are the things which Allah decrees and wills but He does not command, such as permissible things and sins. He does not enjoin them, and He does not accept or like them. He does not enjoin evil or accept kufr for His slaves. Were it not for His will, decree and creation of them, they would not have existed, for what Allah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen.
- Those to which neither type of will apply, which are the permissible things and sins that do not happen and do not exist.
The blessed ones among the slaves of Allah are those for whom Allah decrees the same by His universal qadari will as by His shar’ee The doomed ones are those for whom He wills by His universal qadari will that which He does not will by His shar’ee will.
[Lastly] belief in al-qadar is the real test of the extent of a person’s belief in Allah. It is the true test of how much a person really knows about his Lord and what results from this knowledge of certain and sincere faith in Allah , and His attributes of majesty and perfection. That is because al-qadar raises many questions for the one who gives free rein to his reasoning to try to fully comprehend it. There have been many disputes concerning the issue of al-qadar and many people have engaged in debates and misinterpreted the verses of the Qur’an that mention it [and these have casted doubts and] …provoked confusion in the Muslims’ beliefs… Undoubtedly this is the greatest proof that belief in al-qadar is more important than belief in the other pillars of faith, and that the human mind cannot independently come to understand al-qadar, because al-qadar is one of the mysteries of Allah in His creation; whatever Allah has disclosed to us in His Book or on the lips of His Messenger (v) we know, accept and believe in, and whatever our Lord has not told us, we believe in and we believe in His perfect justice and wisdom, and that He is not to be questioned about what He does, but they will be questioned. (A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah; al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar fi Daw’ il-Kitaab wa’l-Sunnah by Shaykh Dr. ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Mahmoud; al-Eemaan bi’l-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar by Shaykh Muhammad al-Hamd)
At-Tahawi said “The qadar is a secret of Allah concerning His creation. No angel who is close to Allah or Prophet or Messenger has any knowledge of it. Delving into the matter in depth means that one will be forsaken by Allah and lost in confusion, deprivation and transgression. So beware of examining it and thinking about it, and (exposing oneself to) insinuating whispers. Allah has withheld knowledge of qadar from His creation, and has forbidden them to seek to understand it. Allah says in the Qur’an: “He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they will be questioned.” (Soorah Al-Anbiya, 21:23)
Imam Ahmad said “It is a part of the well-known Sunnah to believe in qadar, both good and evil, to accept the ahadith on this topic and to believe in them, and not to ask why or how. The correct way is to accept and believe in it. If a person does not know the explanation of a hadith or understand it in a rational sense, he does not have to; but he still has to believe it and accept it, like the ahadith of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) about qadar”
[The summary of the] important Principles about Qadar:
- It is obligatory (wajeeb) to believe in
- With regard to understanding qadar and defining its limits and dimensions, we must rely on Qur`an and Sunnah, and not on rational analysis and analogy. For human reason is incapable on its own of forming the guidelines which will save it from going astray on this issue. Those who indulge in discussing this issue from a rational point of view have gone astray and gotten lost. Some of them denied qadar altogether, some of them thought that belief in qadar implied that we are compelled (al-jabr) and some created conflict between shari`ah and qadar.
- We should avoid discussing qadar in depth, because some aspect of it cannot be comprehended by the human mind, no matter how brilliant it may be, and others cannot be comprehended except with a great deal of difficulty. Some may say, this is a mean of restricting human intellect. The answer is that this is not aimed at restricting human thought, but at protecting the human mind from wasting its energy on something at which it cannot excel, so that it can engage in areas where he can succeed.
- The apparent meaning is understood, but how it happens is not known to us. It is obligatory to believe in it, but asking how is bidah (heresy).
(The above reply is based on the following resources:
- ‘Divine Will and Predestination – in the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah’ (Islamic Creed Series – Book 8) by ‘Umar S. al-Ashqar
- Various answers provided by Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid on similar topics)
Allahu A’lam (Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows best) and all Perfections belong to Allah, and all mistakes belong to me alone. May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) forgive me, Ameen.